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A carillon is defined by [http://www.gcna.org/
GCNA] as a set of bells, chromatically tuned, spanning at least two octaves and allowed to be missing one or two of the lowest semitones.
Guild also distinguishes between traditional and non-traditional carillons. Both have tuned cast bronze bells, but traditional carillons always use a purely mechanical tracker action to link the playing key to the clapper. All actions that are automatic only or actuated from an electric keyboard are non-traditional.
The Belgium Carillon School disputes that 23 bells comprises a [http://www.beiaardschool.be/royal%20carillon%20school/en-what-rr-01.htm modern carillon]. Most carillon repertoire has been written for four octaves, and foundries have been able to make good small bells for several decades, so the Modern Western Carillon standard should have a minimum of 47 bells.